Publications while at FAS Learning Technologies

Publications while at FAS Learning Technologies


Invited Speaker eTech Ohio Feb 13-15, 2012 Greater Columbus Convention Center, Columbus, OH eTech Ohio hosts the third largest state educational technology conference in the country where more than 6,500 educational innovators gather once a year and share their successes and challenges with one another. The conference is an opportunity for educators to honestly share their experiences—what works, and what doesn’t—for the benefit of their peers.  …..Melanie will be presenting Immune Attack 2 to teachers in a presentation and getting their feedback in all day workshops.




  1. Neda Khalili, Kimberly Sheridan, Asia Williams, Kevin Clark, Melanie Stegman
    Computers in the Schools 
    Vol. 28, Iss. 3, 2011

see also:



Invited Speaker Harrisburg University Pitch Workshop October 19th, 2011

Technologies in Education Forum.  (video)   Melanie Stegman speaking at an event hosted by The, April 7, 2011.  (See minute 32)



TV New report(Video) by the American Institute of Physics in which Melanie Stegman explains how Immune Attack teaches.

Games in Science Education, 2010    Games in Science Education,

Games, Learning and Society, 2010   Games Society and Learning,

American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS 2010 Melanie Stegman presented her work on Immune Attack and evidence for learning and confidence gained by players at the AAAS meeting.

World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications (EDMEDIA) 2010. Neda Khalili, Asia Williams, Kevin Clark & Kimberly Sheridan of George Mason University and Melanie Stegman of the Federation of American Scientists.  Integrating Science Content into Video Game Design


American Society for Cell Biology, ASCB, 2009.   Melanie Stegman presented a poster about the learning and confidence gained by students playing Immune Attack.  Citation: Stegman, M.A. (2009). Immune Attack, a Video Game in the Molecular World. Mol. Biol. Cell 20 (suppl), 2356.

Bonus video of Melanie Stegmn at ASCB 2009, Cell Slam event. “Why I make Video Games.”

Here is the Pressbook for the 2009 ASCB annual Meeting which featured Immune Attack. 

 MEC 2009   Microcomputers in Education,


By Others


NIAID Science Education Programs Get a Boost from ARRA. Funding Helps Groom the Next Generation of Scientists and Their Teachers. Immune Attack 2.0 is being developed with funds from The National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Science Education Award to Melanie Stegman.

Video Games and the Second Life of Science Class.  Amy Maxmen wrote about us for Cell wrote an excellent story about games in education, the President’s STEM initiative (that involved a STEM games challenge to game developers and Immune Attack. Check us out! Click here for the PDF.


Informal Experiences Can Go a Long Way in Teaching Science.   NRC Study Points to Benefits From TV and Games.   By Sean Cavanagh in Education Week.  What drives our interest in science?  What educational methods, formal and informal, effectively create lifelong interest in science?  Do video games that require players to solve tough problems really motivate us to learn?  Henry Jenkin’s response is in this article.

Video Games: A Route to Large-Scale STEM Education?  By:  Merrilea j. Mayo, in Science     Initial studies comparing video game teaching effectiveness to the classic lecture show positive improvements, typically 30% or more.  Merrilea J. Mayo explains the usefulness of video games in the classroom.  



The fight of your life.  Roxanne Khamsi presents Immune Attack to the readers of Nature Medicine. Download the article here.


FAS Publications Prior to 2008

Selected White Papers

A Proposed Educational Framework  Kay Howell, Federation of American Scientists
Gerald A. Higgins, Ph.D., Laerdal Medical Corporation

The VMAS Educational Framework was developed as part of the work of the Validation Methodology for Medical Simulation Training (VMAS) Committee for the Telemedicine Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC) of the US Army Medical and Materiel Command (see Appendix A). 

This white paper describes an educational framework for training combat medics, physicians and others to increase the readiness of medical personnel in the military. The central premise of this framework is the use of simulation to form an effective bridge between textbook and patient, while reducing errors associated with acquisition of patient care skills. Procedural skill acquisition requires both development of technical skills and cognitive or decision making components (i.e. when, where, and how) of implementation. The complex tasks performed by medics and surgeons require the performance of a large set of different skills, of which some are simultaneously performed and others in a temporal order. This proposed educational framework is designed to foster coordination and integration of those skills through employment of realistic problem situations and the use of simulation to permit learners to practice and demonstrate skills. The educational framework employs a key set of principals of learning science that have been demonstrated to enhance learning.  Read the full document here: VMAS

Emergency Training Systems, A Survey

Becky Sullivan, Federation of American Scientists Learning Federation Project
February 2005

Three years and as much as $8 billion after the call for increased funding for emergency preparedness, there is little documentation regarding progress made, efforts to address this call, and most importantly, the effectiveness of these efforts. According to William O. Jenkins, Jr., Director of the Homeland Security and Justice Issues at the Government Accountability Office (GAO), the GAO does not know how much has gone for planning, training, and exercises. And GAO does not know how much has gone specifically to train first responders because the largest grants, such as the State Homeland Security Grants, can generally be used for planning, equipment purchases, training, and exercises, at the discretion of the grant recipient.

The training of first responders, who include public safety personnel working in law enforcement, emergency medical services, emergency management, fire service, public works, government administration, health care, and public health, is a key area of emergency preparedness. Millions of civilian and military medical personnel need to be trained quickly to respond to events involving WMD and have continuous access to refresher courses, including just in time training during an emergency. Several strategies are used to train first responders, such as hands-on training with equipment, field exercises, videos, lectures, and Technology-Enabled Learning Systems (TELS). TELS encompasses a wider range of digital learning activities than Computer-Based Training (CBT): slide shows, such as PowerPoint presentations delivered on CD-Rom or via the Internet, to learning systems that incorporate advanced computer technologies such as virtual reality and intelligent tutors. TELS have the potential to be an effective and efficient method of training and preparing first responders, and there are hundreds of TELS aimed at the first responder market. What does not exist is a way to evaluate their quality and effectiveness. Many are developed with guidance or funds from government agencies, but the standards they are held to are unclear. This survey provides an analysis of 54 TELS developed for emergency responders in the event of a mass casualty incident (MCI) and discusses their features and capabilities.  Read the full report here: Training Systems

Training Technology against Terror: Using Advanced Technology to Prepare Americas Emergency Medical Personnel and First Responders for a Weapon of Mass Destruction Attack

Henry Kelly, FAS, Van Blackwood, FAS, Michelle Roper, FAS, Gerry Higgins, Simquest, Gary Klein, MITRE, John Tyler, MITRE, Dexter Fletcher, IDA, Henry Jenkins, MIT, Alex Chisolm, MIT, Kurt Squire, MIT


September 9, 2002     Without an effective investment in training, the nations investment in Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) response will be largely wasted. WMD training demands are dramatically larger in scope and more complex than anything the nation has faced before. A chemical, biological, nuclear, explosive, or radiological attack will require managing a large site, possibly with thousands of casualties, and organizing local, state, and federal law enforcement, fire, rescue, and medical teams with diverse backgrounds and specialties. There can be no room for delay or confusion participants will be called upon to do extraordinary things even though most of them will have never confronted a similar situation. But the nation’s emergency responders, medical personnel and law enforcement officials indicate that they are not prepared. Read the full report here: Training Technology Against Terror

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